Cognitive Decline in People with Diabetes Associated with Reduced Brain Size

Diabetes type-2 has even been linked to vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. In this type, the body responds poorly to the hormone insulin leading to a condition called insulin-resistance. One theory that explains the link between diabetes and dementia is that the disease leads to heart problems, which then restrict the flow of blood to the brain. Another theory is that high level of insulin in the blood leads to inflammation that damages brain. A new study by Chris Moran, from Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, and colleagues found that brain atrophy rather than cerebrovascular damage explains the association between diabetes and loss of brain function, Healthday reported. The study was based on brain scans obtained from 350 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 363 participants without T2DM. Researchers looked at damage to the brain as well as the volume of gray matter, white matter, and the hippocampus.
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Depression with diabetes may speed mental decline

Tests of cognitive abilities were given to all participants at the study’s beginning, and again at 20 months and 40 months. One test measured psychomotor speed, or how long it takes the brain to register a stimulus, process it and respond. Another looked at the ability to remember words over time. A third test measured executive functioning, or how the brain uses memories to plan actions, pay attention and inhibit inappropriate behavior. Researchers determined whether an individual was depressed using a 9-question form patients filled out themselves. More than 2,600 people completed the tests at all three time points.
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New wellness center part of Rosebud diabetes plan

Brushbreaker started a diabetes education program 15 years ago that soon will include a new wellness center, a mobile unit to travel around the nearly 2,000-square-mile reservation and a plan to certify diabetes educators who are American Indian. The $5 million investment came from Denmark-based Novo Nordisk Inc., the world’s largest manufacturer of insulin, which planned to unveil the program at a Friday ceremony in Rosebud. “I think we’re going to be able to do wonders to get the word out there. And if we help only a handful of people, that will save in the budget but also could save some lives,” said Brushbreaker. American Indians and Alaska Natives have the highest age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes among U.S. racial and ethnic groups, according to the American Diabetes Association .
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Sleep Apnea Seen in Pregnant Women With Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes typically develops during the second trimester of pregnancy and occurs in roughly four to eight of every 100 pregnant women in the United States. Sleep apnea causes brief interruptions in breathing during sleep. Left untreated, sleep apnea increases the risk for stroke, cardiovascular disease and heart attack, according to background information in the study to be published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. “It is common for pregnant women to experience sleep disruptions, but the risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea increases substantially in women who have gestational diabetes,” study author Dr. Sirimon Reutrakul, who conducted the research at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago, said in a journal news release.
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